American tri-racials: African-Native contact, multi-ethnic Native American Nations, and the ethnogenesis of tri-racial groups in North America


Renate Bartl
Schlagworte: Ureinwohner Amerikas, Afro-Amerikaner, Ethnizität

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This book presents an ethno-historical overview on the contact situation of Native Americans, Europeans, and Africans in North America. In particular, it discusses the ethnogenesis of African-Indigenous and tri-racial groups in the eastern USA. Described in detail is the situation in Louisiana and Texas, with a discussion of the specific social, cultural, and legal factors, that framed the contact and interaction of Native Americans, African Americans, Free Persons of Color, and Europeans in these states.

A theoretical frame is provided explaining the formation of a collective ethnicity and culture in African-Native and tri-racial groups, by creating shared group histories, genealogies, migration stories, ethnic identities, etc.

Another focus of this book is on the usage of the term “Indian” by African Americans and Persons of Color as a racial category for self-identification. It is demonstrated, how African Americans and Persons of Color switched into the racial category “Indian” to evade segregation, discrimination, and enslavement, and retain a status as “free” persons.

Renate Bartl holds a Ph.D. in American Cultural History and Cultural Anthropology from the Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität (LMU), Munich, Germany. Her main research areas are Native American Nations, and African-Indigenous and tri-racial groups of the eastern USA. Renate Bartl is an independent scholar and the person in charge of the American Indian Workshop (AIW).

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7. April 2021

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